Energy management and planning in smart cities
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews
A smart city is a sustainable and efficient urban centre that provides a high quality of life to its inhabitants through optimal management of its resources. Energy management is one of the most demanding issues within such urban centres owing to the complexity of the energy systems and their vital role. Therefore, significant attention and effort need to be dedicated to this problem. Modelling and simulation are the major tools commonly used to assess the technological and policy impacts of
... rt solutions, as well as to plan the best ways of shifting from current cities to smarter ones. This paper reviews energy-related work on planning and operation models within the smart city by classifying their scope into five main intervention areas: generation, storage, infrastructure, facilities, and transport. More-complex urban energy models integrating more than one intervention area are also reviewed, outlining their advantages and limitations, existing trends and challenges, and some relevant applications. Lastly, a methodology for developing an improved energy model in the smart-city context is proposed, along with some additional final recommendations. C. Calvillo, A. Sánchez, J. Villar. Energy management and planning in smart cities. 3 these areas are related to each other but contribute to the energy system in different ways: generation provides energy, while storage helps in securing its availability; infrastructure involves the distribution of energy and user interfaces; facilities and transport are the main final consumers of energy, as they need it to operate. Energy systems' implementations are supported by three main layers: intelligence (control/management), communication, and hardware (physical elements and devices). Hence, multidisciplinary solutions are expected. This research mainly focuses on the hardware and intelligence layers. This paper has two main objectives. The first is to develop insight into the complexity of the energy-related activities in a smart-city context by reviewing advances and trends and by analysing the synergies among different intervention areas. Moreover, some of the most typical applications found in the literature for the various energy areas, as well as operation and planning tools, are reviewed. The second objective is to assist stakeholders and policymakers in the design of energy solutions for smart cities by providing strategies for the effective modelling and management of energy systems and by reviewing existing projects and software tools. These strategies include the most relevant elements and common sources of information required for their mathematical modelling. This paper comprises two parts: the first (sections 2-6) presents a review of the research developed in the proposed intervention areas involving energy in smart cities. Section 2 addresses advances in energy generation in a smart-city context, section 3 reviews several storage systems and their applications, section 4 analyses the actual state of the technology and perspectives in the area of infrastructure, section 5 presents energy-related technologies and systems implemented in facilities, and section 6 analyses the advances in energy consumption of transport systems. The second part comprises section 7; it reviews current energy-modelling approaches for smart cities and proposes a methodology for energy-system planning and operation. Finally, concluding remarks and recommendations can be found in section 8. C. Calvillo, A. Sánchez, J. Villar. Energy management and planning in smart cities.