Shiite clergy among Iranian Masons

Z. A. Arabadzhyan
2020 Minbar Islamic Studies  
The article is devoted to the history of the origins and development of Iranian Freemasonry and the Shiite clergy participation in Masonic structures. Since Freemasonry itself has historically been the conductor of liberal ideas in Europe, it would seem that religious figures in Iran, who are in the position of traditionalism, should have been extremely hostile to this trend. However, Iranian experience has shown that this is not so, and a large group of Shiite ulama, including even the most
more » ... ng even the most authoritative, at various times entered the local Masonic lodges. The clergy were especially active during the era of the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911, when they used Masonic lodges and quasi-Masonic structures to fight the absolutist monarchy. Most of its representatives held a leadership positions in these structures and influenced the course of specific historical events and the decisions made. In the second half of the twentieth century the participation of religious leaders in the Masonic lodges of Iran began to weaken. The author also analyzes the rumors about Ayatollah Khomeini's belonging to Freemasonry in order to determine the degree of their reliability.
doi:10.31162/2618-9569-2020-13-1-13-37 fatcat:w2zwszzboracxfxrsof5yysiwa