Finland [unknown]

2019 Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies Country Pages   unpublished
Before Finland's independence in 1917, the moderate expansion of formal education was boosted by industrialisation and urbanization. After the Second World War the creation of a Nordic-style welfare state with economic growth rapidly expanded all levels of education. Today Finnish education is universally provided, funded by the state, and free from the pre-primary level. Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC, ISCED 0) includes pre-primary education for six-year-olds, and integrated ECEC
more » ... integrated ECEC services before that. Compulsory nine-year comprehensive schools cover primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1-2). Three years of upper secondary education (ISCED 3-4) are organized by general or vocational institutions. Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS), both have three-year bachelor and two-year master's programmes (ISCED 6-7). Doctoral degrees (ISCED 8) can be pursued only in universities. There are no transition dead-ends. Liberal adult education is widely offered.
doi:10.5040/9781350995963.0009 fatcat:tgqa3wz3b5an7fi7qnbifg7uve