Community Resilience in Crises: Technology and Social Media Enablers
Human Technology: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments
Technology can contribute greatly to disaster resilience, especially by enhancing the interconnectedness between the authorities and the public and by facilitating the rapid exchange of information. This special issue of Human Technology: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments is focused on technology and social media enablers of community resilience. Crises take on a variety of shapes and forms-natural or health disasters, terroristic and criminal acts, technology
... echnology malfunctions, and large-scale accidents-at the local, regional, national, and global levels. Crisis management plans, created and implemented at the organizational level, typically involve public service and institutional authorities overseeing emergency response. However, contemporary crises, because of scale, complexity, or immediacy, are more likely to require collaboration with citizen responders to deal quickly with evolving situations. TRENDS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT Margaretha Wahlström, the United Nations' Assistant Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction, recently emphasized that nowadays disasters are not seen as a single event but rather as a longer process requiring the attention of multiple actors (Wahlström, 2014) . This means that, after an initial emphasis on warning and first response, disaster-supporting technology can be employed more fully in supporting resilience in other crisis phases, including preparedness and recovery. In addition, technology can facilitate cooperation within response organizations or the response network, but also can enable wider cooperation among multiple stakeholders and affected parties, such as other organizations, companies, and civil society. To achieve these ends, crisis practitioners and crisis managers are calling for humantechnology applications that are developed from a user perspective, which, by extension, takes into account the perceptions, needs, and practices of multiple users.