Prevention of Angiotensin II-Mediated Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Fibrosis by Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2

J. Zhong, D. Guo, C. B. Chen, W. Wang, M. Schuster, H. Loibner, J. M. Penninger, J. W. Scholey, Z. Kassiri, G. Y. Oudit
2010 Hypertension  
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase capable of metabolizing angiotensin (Ang) II into Ang 1 to 7. We hypothesized that ACE2 is a negative regulator of Ang II signaling and its adverse effects on the kidneys. Ang II infusion (1.5 mg/kg Ϫ1 /d Ϫ1 ) for 4 days resulted in higher renal Ang II levels and increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity in ACE2 knockout (Ace2 Ϫ/y ) mice compared to wild-type mice. Expression of proinflammatory
more » ... s, interleukin-1␤ and hemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, were increased in association with greater activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 and increase of protein kinase C-␣ levels. These changes were associated with increased expression of fibrosis-associated genes (␣-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-␤, procollagen type I␣1) and increased protein levels of collagen I with histological evidence of increased tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Ang II-infused wild-type mice were then treated with recombinant human ACE2 (2 mg/kg Ϫ1 /d Ϫ1 , intraperitoneal). Daily treatment with recombinant human ACE reduced Ang II-induced pressor response and normalized renal Ang II levels and oxidative stress. These changes were associated with a suppression of Ang II-mediated activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase C pathway and Ang II-mediated renal fibrosis and T-lymphocyte-mediated inflammation. We conclude that loss of ACE2 enhances renal Ang II levels and Ang II-induced renal oxidative stress, resulting in greater renal injury, whereas recombinant human ACE2 prevents Ang II-induced hypertension, renal oxidative stress, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. ACE2 is an important negative regulator of Ang II-induced renal disease and enhancing ACE2 action may have therapeutic potential for patients with kidney disease. (Hypertension. 2011;57:00-00.) • Online Data Supplement
doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.110.164244 pmid:21189404 fatcat:qlpotmhaxzc6pnwgowqg33cnuu