Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia: Prevalence and Associated Factors

Thamil Arasu Saminathan, Muhammad Fadhli, Tania Gayle, Halizah Mat Riffin, Hasimah Ismail, Norazizah Ibrahim Wong, Wan Shakira, Hooi Lai Seong, Sunita Bavanandan, Ghazali Ahmad, Ong Loke Meng, Esther Tan (+4 others)
2020 Zenodo  
Introduction According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally was 9.1% . Malaysia recorded a similar prevalence of 9.07% in the 2011's National Health and Morbidity Survey . We aim to determine the current prevalence and associated factors of CKD among adults in Malaysia. Materials and Methods A nation-wide, population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 among adults aged ≥18-year-old. Total of 1,398 adults were
more » ... adults were randomly selected, using stratified cluster method. Blood for serum creatinine and random blood sugar was taken from respondents at their home by qualified staff from a nearby Ministry of Health (MOH) hemodialysis unit. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) was measured using a single urine sample. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was measured with a calibrated serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m or the presence of persistent albuminuria if eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m . Results A total of 1398 individuals were approached for this study, and 75% of them (n = 1047) consented to participate. Serum creatinine was measured in 977 respondents. The final analysis set comprised of 890 respondents. Table 1 shows the prevalence of CKD by stages (n = 890). Our study shows that the prevalence of CKD in Malaysia was 15.48% (95% CI: 12.30, 19.31). Using multivariate analysis, as seen in Table 2, shows that hypertension (aOR 3.72), diabetes mellitus (aOR 3.32), increasing Body Mass Index (aOR 1.06), and increasing age (aOR 1.06) were significantly associated with CKD. Discussion This study has demonstrated a rising prevalence of CKD in Malaysia over the last 7 years since the previous study, the prevalence of 9.07 in 2011 to 15.48% currently. The probable reasons accounting for this rising trend are the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases that is associated with CKD and changes in population demogr [...]
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4018398 fatcat:4fzrrilbivaj3hk4vfcvi7zxd4