The Dietary Intake and Its Features across Four Seasons in the Metropolis of China
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Chinese diet pattern known as plant-based is more linked with seasonal supply, but it is lack of study on seasonal difference in dietary intakes in China. Our study was to assess seasonal variation in the absolute dietary intake among general population in a metropolis, Shanghai, China. A representative sample of general population aged 15 and older (n51,704) were randomly stratified-sampled from communities in Shanghai. Dietary survey included consecutive 3-day-24-hour diet record recall and
... usehold condiments weighing. Data was collected across four seasons during 2012-2014. Most of food and condiments consumption differed across seasons in Shanghai. Intakes of grains, legumes and cooking oil were highest in spring; vegetables, fruit and non-alcoholic beverage highest, but cooking oil and cooking salt lowest in summer; red meat, nuts and cooking salt highest in winter. Seasonality existed in the intakes of energy and energy contributed from macronutrients that fat contributed more in winter but less in summer. Seasonal variations were also found in beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamin, folate and sodium intakes. Seasonal changes of dietary intake were extensively observed in Shanghai, a highly-developed metropolis in China. Given the seasonal differences and their features described in current article, the estimation methods of the average dietary intake across whole year by just conducting dietary survey in one single season warrants further study.