Effects of Mg2+ and the beta gamma-subunit complex on the interactions of guanine nucleotides with G proteins
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mg2+ interacts with the alpha subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in the presence of guanosine-5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP-gamma S) to form a highly fluorescent complex from which nucleotide dissociates very slowly. The apparent Kd for interaction of G alpha X GTP gamma S with Mg2+ is approximately 5 nM, similar to the Km for G protein GTPase activity X G beta gamma increases the rate of dissociation of GTP gamma S from G alpha X GTP gamma S or G alpha X
... amma S or G alpha X GTP gamma S X Mg2+ at low concentrations of Mg2+. When the concentration of Mg2+ exceeds 1 mM, G beta gamma dissociates from G beta gamma X G alpha X GTP gamma S X Mg2+. Compared with the dramatic effect of Mg2+ on binding of GTP gamma S to G alpha, the metal has relatively little effect on the binding of GDP. However, G beta gamma increases the affinity of G alpha for GDP by more than 100-fold. High concentrations of Mg2+ promote the dissociation of GDP from G beta gamma X G alpha X GDP, apparently without causing subunit dissociation. The steady-state rate of GTP hydrolysis is strictly correlated with the rate of dissociation of GDP from G alpha under all conditions examined. Thus, there are at least two sites for interaction of Mg2+ with G protein-nucleotide complexes. Furthermore, binding of G beta gamma and GTP gamma S to G alpha is negatively cooperative, while the binding interaction between G beta gamma and GDP is strongly positive.