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Seasonal timing of reproduction in voles is driven by photoperiod. Here we hypothesize that a negative energy balance can modify spring-programmed photoperiodic responses in the hypothalamus, controlling reproductive organ development. We manipulated energy balance by the work-for-food protocol, in which voles were exposed to increasing levels of food scarcity at different ambient temperatures under long photoperiod. We reveal that common (Microtus arvalis) and tundra voles (Microtusdoi:10.1101/2021.01.20.427447 fatcat:dh3fphu435dt5dou67rnzflg5a