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As a promising paradigm to provide high spectral efficiency and energy efficiency, heterogenous radio access networks (HetNets) have attracted a lot of attention from both academia and industry. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the recent advances in HetNets, including system architecture evolutions, key techniques, and open issues. The system architectures introduced include conventional HetNets, HetNets with cloud computing, and HetNets with fog computing. In addition, a noveldoi:10.13052/jmm1550-4646.1441 fatcat:45vpag3lnvew3g7p2oyzc66nde