TP63 links chromatin remodeling and enhancer reprogramming to epidermal differentiation and squamous cell carcinoma development

Mei Yi, Yixin Tan, Li Wang, Jing Cai, Xiaoling Li, Zhaoyang Zeng, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Xiayu Li, Pingqing Tan, Bo Xiang
2020 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)  
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an aggressive malignancy that can originate from various organs. TP63 is a master regulator that plays an essential role in epidermal differentiation. It is also a lineage-dependent oncogene in SCC. ΔNp63α is the prominent isoform of TP63 expressed in epidermal cells and SCC, and overexpression promotes SCC development through a variety of mechanisms. Recently, ΔNp63α was highlighted to act as an epidermal-specific pioneer factor that binds closed chromatin and
more » ... osed chromatin and enhances chromatin accessibility at epidermal enhancers. ΔNp63α coordinates chromatin-remodeling enzymes to orchestrate the tissue-specific enhancer landscape and three-dimensional high-order architecture of chromatin. Moreover, ΔNp63α establishes squamous-like enhancer landscapes to drive oncogenic target expression during SCC development. Importantly, ΔNp63α acts as an upstream regulator of super enhancers to activate a number of oncogenic transcripts linked to poor prognosis in SCC. Mechanistically, ΔNp63α activates genes transcription through physically interacting with a number of epigenetic modulators to establish enhancers and enhance chromatin accessibility. In contrast, ΔNp63α also represses gene transcription via interacting with repressive epigenetic regulators. ΔNp63α expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. In this review, we summarize recent advances of p63 in epigenomic and transcriptional control, as well as the mechanistic regulation of p63.
doi:10.1007/s00018-020-03539-2 pmid:32447427 fatcat:kswlbnlc45fbdjlwxm5txos2x4