Optimization of CO2 production rate for firefighting robot applications using response surface methodology
O p ti miz a tio n of CO 2 p r o d u c tio n r a t e fo r fir efi g h ti n g r o b o t a p plic a tio n s u si n g r e s p o n s e s u rf a c e m e t h o d olo gy Ajal a, MT, Kh a n, M R, S h afi e, AA, S al a mi, MJE, M o h a m a d N or, MI a n d Ol a d o k u n, M O h t t p:// dx. d oi.o r g/ 1 0. 1 0 8 0/ 2 3 3 1 1 9 1 6. 2 0 1 8. 1 5 5 5 7 4 4 Ti t l e O p ti miz a tio n of CO 2 p r o d u c tio n r a t e for fir efig h ti n g r o b o t a p plic a tio n s u si n g r e s p o n s e s u rf a c e
... n s e s u rf a c e m e t h o d olo gy A u t h o r s Ajal a, MT, Kh a n, M R, S h afie, AA, S al a mi, MJ E, M o h a m a d N or, MI a n d Ol a d o k u n, M O Typ e Articl e U RL This ve r sio n is a v ail a bl e a t : h t t p:// u sir.s alfo r d. a c. u k/id/ e p ri n t/ 5 3 1 0 3/ P u b l i s h e d D a t e 2 0 1 8 U SIR is a di git al c oll e c tio n of t h e r e s e a r c h o u t p u t of t h e U niv e r si ty of S alfo r d. W h e r e c o py ri g h t p e r mi t s, full t e x t m a t e ri al h el d in t h e r e p o si to ry is m a d e fr e ely a v ail a bl e o nli n e a n d c a n b e r e a d , d o w nlo a d e d a n d c o pi e d fo r n o nc o m m e r ci al p riv a t e s t u dy o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s . Pl e a s e c h e c k t h e m a n u s c ri p t fo r a n y fu r t h e r c o py ri g h t r e s t ri c tio n s. Fo r m o r e info r m a tio n, in cl u di n g o u r p olicy a n d s u b mi s sio n p r o c e d u r e , pl e a s e c o n t a c t t h e R e p o si to ry Te a m a t: u si r@ s alfo r d. a c. u k . Abstract: A carbon dioxide gas-powered pneumatic actuation has been proposed as a suitable power source for an autonomous firefighting robot (CAFFR), which is designed to operate in an indoor fire environment in our earlier study. Considering the consumption rate of the pneumatic motor, the gas-powered actuation that is based on the theory of phase change material requires optimal determination of not only the sublimation rate of carbon dioxide but also the sizing of dry ice granules. Previous studies that have used the same theory are limited to generating a high volume of carbon dioxide without reference to neither the production rate of the gas nor the size of the granules of the dry ice. However, such consideration remains a design requirement for efficient driving of a carbon dioxide-powered firefighting robot. This paper investigates the effects of influencing design parameters on the sublimation rate of dry ice for powering a pneumatic motor. The optimal settings of these parameters that maximize the sublimation rate at the minimal time and dry ice mass are presented. In the experimental design and analysis, we employed full-factorial design and response surface methodology to fit an acceptable model for the relationship between the design factors and the response variables. Predictive models of the sublimation rate were examined via M. T. Ajala ABOUT THE AUTHOR The central focus of our research group is to develop autonomous systems and robots for different reallife applications like biomimetic robots, terrain mapping robots, disaster handling robots, etc. The proposed project falls under the disaster handling category. An autonomous firefighting robot (FFR) that can replace firefighters in fire hot spots to perform firefighting tasks is proposed here. Existing firefighting robots use prime movers that are electrically powered and vulnerable to a hightemperature environment. We introduced a carbon dioxide gas powered actuator for the propulsion of the FFR in the fire scene. The FFR will self-generate the required power for the actuator from dry ice using the theory of Phase Change of Material. The investigation in the present article provides the groundwork for the optimization of the dry ice to be used as the power source and also forms the basis for the completion of the prototype development. PUBLIC INTEREST STATEMENT Electric motor powered robots cannot operate close to fire spots because of the risk of insulation breakdown of the engines. A carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas-powered pneumatic actuator that can self-generate CO 2 in situ from dry ice has been proposed to replace the electrical motors and make actuator operable in indoor firefighting application. To generate the CO 2 effectively from dry ice for the pneumatic power task, the effects of the influencing factors such as the mass of dry ice and the temperature of water-used as to speed up the production rate of carbon dioxide-on the sublimation rate of carbon dioxide from dry ice is examined in the current article. Although the pneumatic motor, in this study, will be used to propel a firefighting robot in the high thermal indoor fire; the same approach is applicable for converting solid CO 2 into gas form for other applications. Ajala et al., Cogent Engineering (2018), 5: 1555744 Page 2 of 17 ANOVA, and the suitability of the linear model is confirmed. Further, an optimal sublimation rate value of 0.1025 g/s is obtained at a temperature of 80°C, the mass of 16.1683 g, and sublimation time of 159.375 s.