Geology in the law

James Furman Kemp
1920 Economic Geology and The Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists  
In the early discovery and development of the mining resources of the West, the individual camps shaped their own rules affecting the nature and size of claims, the formalities of registration and the security of titles. Great variety inevitably sprang up.. Gold was practically the one metal sought, and miners were divided into placer miners and quartz miners. The latter felt much pride in their calling and were the aristocracy of the fraternity. When peace came after the strife of the Civil
more » ... ife of the Civil War, Congress felt at once the importance of encouraging in a liberal way the development of the western region, and addressed itself to codifying and systematizing the laws affecting discovery and ownership. The titles already existing, and the validity of customs, however variant, were recognized and established. For new locations in the national domain a uniform system was adopted in 1866, was finally revised in 1872, and was placed in the form in which it stands to-day. Claims were to be 1,5oo feet long by 6oo feet wide, with parallel end lines. The grants were to cover "the exclusive right of possession and enjoyment of all the surface included within the lines of their locations, and of all veins, lodes, and ledges throughout 'their entire depth, the top or apex of which lies inside of such surface lines, extended downward vertically, although such veins, lodes, or ledges may so far depart from a perpendicular in their course downward as to extend outside the vertical side lines of such surface locations. But their right of possession to such outside parts of such veins or ledges shall be confined to such portions thereof, as lie between vertical planes drawn downward as above described, through the end lines of their locations, so continued in their own direction, that such planes will intersect such exterior parts of such veins and ledges." The Senators and Congressmen who formulated the statute were not themselves mining geologists, although had they wished, 250 :260 EDITORIAL.
doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.15.3.259 fatcat:wzcdaqnd6ndz3glron7aquu3ru