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We present an efficient deep learning technique for the model reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flow problems. The proposed technique relies on the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the stochastic gradient descent method. Of particular interest is to predict the unsteady fluid forces for different bluff body shapes at low Reynolds number. The discrete convolution process with a nonlinear rectification is employed to approximate the mapping between the bluff-body shape<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.09099v3">arXiv:1710.09099v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yzrdqmsvf5bzzfzkv6dhnpnpee">fatcat:yzrdqmsvf5bzzfzkv6dhnpnpee</a> </span>
more »... d the fluid forces. The deep neural network is fed by the Euclidean distance function as the input and the target data generated by the full-order Navier-Stokes computations for primitive bluff body shapes. The convolutional networks are iteratively trained using the stochastic gradient descent method with the momentum term to predict the fluid force coefficients of different geometries and the results are compared with the full-order computations. We attempt to provide a physical analogy of the stochastic gradient method with the momentum term with the simplified form of the incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equation. We also construct a direct relationship between the CNN-based deep learning and the Mori-Zwanzig formalism for the model reduction of a fluid dynamical system. A systematic convergence and sensitivity study is performed to identify the effective dimensions of the deep-learned CNN process such as the convolution kernel size, the number of kernels and the convolution layers. Within the error threshold, the prediction based on our deep convolutional network has a speed-up nearly four orders of magnitude compared to the full-order results and consumes an insignificant fraction of computational resources. The proposed CNN-based approximation procedure has a profound impact on the parametric design of bluff bodies and the feedback control of separated flows.
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