A Distinct Class of Slow ( 0.2-2 Hz) Intrinsically Bursting Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons Determines UP/DOWN State Dynamics in the Neocortex
Journal of Neuroscience
During sleep and anesthesia, neocortical neurons exhibit rhythmic UP/DOWN membrane potential states. Although UP states are maintained by synaptic activity, the mechanisms that underlie the initiation and robust rhythmicity of UP states are unknown. Using a physiologically validated model of UP/DOWN state generation in mouse neocortical slices whereby the cholinergic tone present in vivo is reinstated, we show that the regular initiation of UP states is driven by an electrophysiologically
... ct subset of morphologically identified layer 5 neurons, which exhibit intrinsic rhythmic low-frequency burst firing at ϳ0.2-2 Hz. This low-frequency bursting is resistant to block of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission but is absent when slices are maintained in a low Ca 2ϩ medium (an alternative, widely used model of cortical UP/DOWN states), thus explaining the lack of rhythmic UP states and abnormally prolonged DOWN states in this condition. We also characterized the activity of various other pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons during UP/ DOWN states and found that an electrophysiologically distinct subset of layer 5 regular spiking pyramidal neurons fires earlier during the onset of network oscillations compared with all other types of neurons recorded. This study, therefore, identifies an important role for cell-type-specific neuronal activity in driving neocortical UP states.