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Ever since Clausius in 1865 and Boltzmann in 1877, the concepts of entropy and of its maximization have been the foundations for predicting how material equilibria derive from microscopic properties. But, despite much work, there has been no equally satisfactory general variational principle for nonequilibrium situations. However, in 1980, a new avenue was opened by E.T. Jaynes and by Shore and Johnson. We review here maximum caliber, which is a maximum-entropy-like principle that can inferdoi:10.1146/annurev-physchem-071119-040206 pmid:32075515 pmcid:PMC9827727 fatcat:jlydees3ebg2tmzomy2c3hkvae