High-Capacity Transport Associated with Pre- and Post-Haulage in Intermodal Road-Rail Transport
Journal of Transportation Technologies
This paper develops a model for analyzing the potential of longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) related to pre-and post-haulage in the intermodal rail-road transport chain (IRT). The paper considers the combined economic and emission costs among three different transport networks including intermodal rail-road transport with current Swedish regulatory framework for trucks, intermodal rail-road transport with LHVs, and direct-road transport. The objective is to analyse the potential of
... tial of high-capacity transport associated with pre-and post-haulage for enhancing the competitiveness of intermodal transport from a full-costs perspective. The model developed is applied to a Swedish context and case study. Research findings reveal that the break-even of the IRT compared to the direct road transport could be significantly lowered, which suggests the LHVs contribute to exploring the market of IRT over smaller flows. Keywords Intermodal Transport, HCT, Sustainable Transport, Pre-and Post-Haulage, Modal Shift * Corresponding author. Y. Ye et al. 290 aims at analyzing the potential of HCT in pre-and post-haulage (PPH) in road-rail intermodal transport. In Europe, intermodal freight transport has frequently been seen as a potentially strong competitor to road transportation and environmentally friendlier in many contexts  . According to UIC , compared to pure road transport, intermodal rail-based transport is reducing the external costs (i.e., emissions of greenhouse gases and unpaid costs to society for accidents) by €0.02 per tonne-km. Consequently in 2007, the European Commission adopted a Freight Transport Logistics Action Plan. This includes potential wider use of European Modular System (EMS) vehicle combinations of 25.25 meters long. These vehicles are in regular use in Sweden and Finland (recently Finland is testing HCT vehicle combinations of 32 meters long) . Broad-based utilization of LHVs in Sweden would provide significant benefits in terms of increased efficiency, as well as reduced demand for investments to lower fuel consumption and reduce emissions. Furthermore, in Sweden, considerable research addresses longer vehicles, which are up to 32 m long and capable of carrying two 40 ft containers simultaneously. These studies indicate that there is a huge potential to be more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. However, the increase of transport demand in Europe is mainly met by road transport  , which leads to significant negative impacts on society, especially the environment  . The main reason is that the direct-road transportation has strong competition in the transport market over short distance, which is the main market in the EU (about 46% of the demand over distances of 150 -500 km). Furthermore, the intermodal rail-truck transport is associated with long-distance transport that accounts for only 22% of the demand for transport in the EU. According to the European Commission , road freight transport accounts for 73% of all inland freight transport in the EU. Therefore, considering the negative impacts from road transport, the white paper of transport in the EU (2011) suggests that "30% of road freight over 300 km should shift to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050". This goal requires the development of the competitiveness of IRT transport, especially the economic competitiveness. There is a great deal of research addressing this challenge. The competitiveness of IRT transport reported by much of the research depends on the costs of transshipment and the pre-and post-haulage (PPH) which accounts for 25% -40% of the total cost of the IRT system -  . For this reason, this paper would like to measure the potential of lowering the cost of PPH as it relates to the intermodal transport chain. In addition, many other researches maintain that the size and weight of trucks limit the development of the road freight transport segment in the IRT system. Bergqvist and Behrends  suggest using longer vehicles that have a substantial potential to reduce the cost of PPH. Thus longer and heavier vehicles seem to be a potential solution to reduce the cost of the IRT system. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for analyzing the potential of longer and heavier vehicles related to pre-and post-haulage in the rail-truck intermodal transport chain. Using the case of Jula in Sweden and the developed model, the paper estimates the benefits achieved by shifting truck type from the Swedish current truck regulations to the longer ones with 32 m length. This dispensation for longer vehicles could enable a competitive intermodal solution between Gothenburg harbor, Falköping intermodal terminal, and Jula's central warehouse in Skara. The following section addresses previous research on PPH and LHVs. Section 2 relates to PPH and IRT and Section 3 develops the cost calculation for different transport networks. Section 4 gives an analysis of the results after the application of the model using the case data. And finally, conclusions are presented in Section 5. Literature Review Two streams of research that study the role of PPH related to intermodal rail-road transport and the effect of the LHVs are associated with this paper.