Novel human endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1

M S Horwitz, M T Boyce-Jacino, A J Faras
1992 Journal of Virology  
Endogenous retrovirus-related sequences exist within the normal genomic DNA of all eukaryotes, and these endogenous sequences have been shown to be important to the nature and biology of related exogenous retroviruses and may also play a role in cellular functions. To date, no endogenous sequences related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been reported. Herein we describe the first report of the presence of nucleotide sequences related to HIV-1 in human, chimpanzee, and rhesus
more » ... mpanzee, and rhesus monkey DNAs from normal uninfected individuals. We also present the isolation and characterization of two of these endogenous HIV-1-related sequences, EHS-1 and EHS-2. With use of low-stringency Southern blot hybridization, complex banding patterns were detected in human DNA with 5' and 3' HIV-1-derived probes. When an HIV-1 env region probe was used, we detected a less complex, conserved banding pattern in human DNA as well as a related but distinct banding pattern in chimpanzee and rhesus monkey DNAs. EHS-1 and -2 were cloned from normal human genomic DNA libraries by using the env region probe. Clone EHS-1 shows sequence similarity with the domain of the envelope cellular protease cleavage site of HIV-1, while EHS-2 has sequence similarity to the overlapping reading frame for Rev and gp4i. Stringent hybridization of EHS-1 back to primate genomic DNA indicates two distinct EHS-1 loci in normal human DNA, an identical band pattern in chimpanzee DNA, and a single locus in rhesus monkey DNA. Likewise, EHS-2 is present as a single highly conserved locus in all three species. An oligonucleotide derived from EHS-2 across a region of near identity to HIV-1 detects a complex banding pattern in all primates tested similar to that seen with the 3' HIV-1 probe. These data suggest that most of the HIV-1-related sequences identified in primate DNA share a common core of nucleic acid sequence found in both EHS-2 and rev and that some of these H1V-1-related sequences have additional larger regions of sequence similarity to HIV-1. 2170 on May 5, 2020 by guest
doi:10.1128/jvi.66.4.2170-2179.1992 fatcat:rnj72coqxzdcflio2ogyryjdzq