Surface characterization of maize-straw-derived biochar and their sorption mechanism for Pb2+ and methylene blue
Biochar derived from straw is a potential low-cost adsorbent for metal ions and organic pollutants, but its practical application is still limited by the adsorption capacity. In this study, the correlation between the biochar's properties and pyrolysis temperature was explored. The adsorption mechanism was studied by monitoring the changes of biochar properties before and after adsorption using BET, SEM, XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The adsorption mechanism was revealed following the adsorption
... ing the adsorption kinetics and the changes in biochar's properties before and after adsorption. The methylene blue (MB) and Pb2+ adsorption removal efficiency reached 95% at the initial concentration of 125 and 500 mg/L, respectively. Physisorption, chemisorption, and pore filling mechanisms determined the adsorption process of MB and Pb2+ on biochar. The Pb2+ adsorption process was highly affected by chemical co-precipitation at higher pyrolysis temperatures. The appearance of tar particles increased the adsorption rate of Pb2+. The biochar obtained at the pyrolysis temperature at 500, 800 and 900°C proved to be applicable for Pb2+ removal. Chemisorption and porosity dominated the MB adsorption, and biochars produced at pyrolysis temperatures of 200, 800 and 900°C are potential materials for MB removal. This study provides optimal pyrolysis conditions for transforming maize straw into valuable, low-cost materials for the removal of different pollutants.