Crosstalk between stress responses, mediators and the immune system: a proteomic approach [thesis]

Anja Billing
The glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol, main mediator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, has many implications in metabolism, stress response and the immune system. GC function is mediated mainly via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) which binds as a transcription factor to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). GCs are strong immunosuppressants and used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Long-term usage can lead to several irreversible side effects which make improved
more » ... ing indispensable and warrant the adaptation of current drugs. Several large scale gene expression studies have been performed to gain insight into GC signalling. Nevertheless, studies at the proteomic level have not yet been made. The effects of cortisol on monocytes and macrophages were studied in the THP-1 cell line using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. More than 50 cortisol-modulated proteins were identified which belonged to five functional groups: cytoskeleton, chaperones, immune response, metabolism, and transcription/translation. Multiple GREs were found in the promoters of their corresponding genes (+10 kb/-0.2 kb promoter regions including all alternative promoters available within the Database for Transcription Start Sites (DBTSS)). High quality GREs were observed mainly in cortisol modulated genes, corroborating the proteomics results. Differential regulation of selected immune response related proteins were confirmed by qPCR and immuno-blotting. All immune response related proteins (MX1, IFIT3, SYWC, STAT3, PMSE2, PRS7) which were induced by LPS were suppressed by cortisol and belong mainly to classical interferon target genes. Mx1 has been selected for detailed expression analysis since new isoforms have been identified by proteomics. FKBP51, known to be induced by cortisol, was identified as the strongest differentially expressed protein and contained the highest number of strict GREs. Genomic analysis of five alternative FKBP5 promoter regi [...]
doi:10.25353/ubtr-xxxx-9326-adb2 fatcat:rxr6rlb65fcjrbnczgyncr5erm