Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and their Surgical Treatment [chapter]

Vicente Vanaclocha‐Vanaclocha, Nieves Sáiz‐Sapena, Jose María Ortiz‐Criado, Nieves Vanaclocha
2017 Peripheral Nerve Regeneration - From Surgery to New Therapeutic Approaches Including Biomaterials and Cell-Based Therapies Development  
Nerves pass from one body area to another through channels made of connective tissue and/or bone. In these narrow passages, they can get trapped due to anatomic abnormalities, ganglion cysts, muscle or connective tissue hypertrophy, tumours, trauma or iatrogenic mishaps. Nearly all nerves can be affected. The clinical presentation is pain, paraesthesia, sensory and motor power loss. The specific clinical features will depend on the affected nerve and on the chronicity, severity, speed and
more » ... ism of compression. Its incidence is higher under some occupations and is some systemic conditions: diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, alcoholism, oedema and inflammatory diseases. The diagnosis is suspected with the clinical presentation and provocative clinical test, being confirmed with electrodiagnostic and/or ultrasonographic studies. Magnetic Resonance Studies (MRI) rule out ganglion cysts or tumours. Conservative medical treatment is often sufficient. In refractory ones, surgical decompression should be performed before nerve damage and muscle atrophy are irreversible. The 'double crash' syndrome happens when a peripheral nerve is compressed at more than one point along its trajectory. In cases with marked muscle atrophy, a 'supercharge end-to-side' nerve transfer can be added to the decompression. After decompression in those few cases with refractory pain, a nerve neurostimulator can be applied.
doi:10.5772/67946 fatcat:tmanrvzwdvarvl27lyjpjhach4