Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning for Multi-Class Classification of Whole Slide Breast Histopathology Images

Caner Mercan, Selim Aksoy, Ezgi Mercan, Linda G. Shapiro, Donald L. Weaver, Joann G. Elmore
2018 IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging  
Digital pathology has entered a new era with the availability of whole slide scanners that create the high-resolution images of full biopsy slides. Consequently, the uncertainty regarding the correspondence between the image areas and the diagnostic labels assigned by pathologists at the slide level, and the need for identifying regions that belong to multiple classes with different clinical significances have emerged as two new challenges. However, generalizability of the state-of-the-art
more » ... ithms, whose accuracies were reported on carefully selected regions of interest (ROIs) for the binary benign versus cancer classification, to these multi-class learning and localization problems is currently unknown. This paper presents our potential solutions to these challenges by exploiting the viewing records of pathologists and their slide-level annotations in weakly supervised learning scenarios. First, we extract candidate ROIs from the logs of pathologists' image screenings based on different behaviors, such as zooming, panning, and fixation. Then, we model each slide with a bag of instances represented by the candidate ROIs and a set of class labels extracted from the pathology forms. Finally, we use four different multi-instance multilabel learning algorithms for both slide-level and ROI-level predictions of diagnostic categories in whole slide breast histopathology images. Slide-level evaluation using 5-class and 14-class settings showed average precision values up to 81% and 69%, respectively, under different weakly labeled learning scenarios. ROI-level predictions showed that the classifier could successfully perform multi-class localization and classification within whole slide images that were selected to include the full range of challenging diagnostic categories. Index Terms-Digital pathology, breast histopathology, whole slide imaging, region of interest detection, weaklylabeled learning, multi-class classification. 0278-0062
doi:10.1109/tmi.2017.2758580 pmid:28981408 pmcid:PMC5774338 fatcat:nyci5dsb3bbythiv4jqtcnstaq