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The notion of defining a cluster as a component in a mixture model was put forth by Tiedeman in 1955; since then, the use of mixture models for clustering has grown into an important subfield of classification. Considering the volume of work within this field over the past decade, which seems equal to all of that which went before, a review of work to date is timely. First, the definition of a cluster is discussed and some historical context for model-based clustering is provided. Then,doi:10.1007/s00357-016-9211-9 fatcat:ocdvpdp3ijb57egck4exbzzy7e