1918 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
chlorid is used, little or no retardation of the roentgen ray is noted. Sodium bromid, apparently, smears over the surface of the ureters, minor calices of the kid-Fig. 4.-Cysto-ureteropyelogram with 25 per cent, sodium broinid solution ; bilateral ascending pyelonephro-ureteritis, cystitis and dis¬ torted bladder. neys, and small saccules of an inflammatory bladder even much better than thorium, and for this reason we believe has a distinct advantage over it. Furthermore, the drug is easily
more » ... e drug is easily obtained, and costs only 75 cents a pound at the present time, whereas potassium iodid costs $4.90 a pound, and thorium, even in a 15 per cent, solution, largely because of the difficulty in its manufacture, costs $2.50 a pound. We have injected 2 c.c. of 25 per cent, sodium bromid in the ureters of three dogs, in which the ure¬ ters were ligated and divided immediately after injec¬ tion. Six days later, a nephrectomy was performed and a hydronephrotic sac containing approximately half an ounce of fluid was found. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of these kidneys did not show any irritating effects from the drug. We have used a 12 per cent, solution of sodium bromid in making several cystograms on patients, and a 25 per cent, solution of sodium bromid in making several pyelograms, without noting any injurious effects (Figs. 2, 3 and 4) . Experiments are now under way for the purpose of comparing the effect of thorium, potassium iodid and sodium bromid, when they are retained in kidney pelves, and also for the purpose of studying the gradual development of hydronephrosis after the injection into the kidney pelvis of various opaque solutions. The sodium bromid is easily procured, easily sterilized, and is inexpensive. In our experience sodium bromid in a 25 per cent, solution, has offered advantages as a medium for pyelography as follows : 1. It is a bland solution and does not damage the kidney. 2. It casts a clear shadow, outlining the entire pelvis and ureter as well as, if not better than, other mediums thus far advocated. 3. It is less irritating to the pelvic and vesical mucosa than other mediums. 4. It is the least expensive, and is readily procured. 5. It is very easily prepared, and is readily sterilized by boiling.
doi:10.1001/jama.1918.02600400012004 fatcat:mk7cqzx32jaqhis7t4bhlluh24