Nanoscale galvanic replacement in non-aqueous media: a mini-review
Voprosy himii i himičeskoj tehnologii
This mini-review summarizes the publications of the last decade dedicated to the study of the formation of metal nanostructures by galvanic replacement reaction in a non-aqueous medium (organic solvents and ionic liquids). It is shown that among modern methods of surface modification of nanostructures, galvanic replacement reaction belongs to one of the most effective ones in terms of preparing new materials and application of metal films. However, controlled formation of nanostructures is not
... ostructures is not always possible in aqueous solutions due to the occurrence of side chemical and electrochemical processes. The latter can be prevented in non-aqueous media, making them promising in chemistry of nanomaterials. A significant difference between the formation of M 1 /M 2 nanostructures, where either electronegative (Mg, Al, Si, Zn, Co) or electropositive (Cu, Ag) elements serve as a sacrificial surface (M 1 ), is illustrated by the galvanic replacement reactions occurring in organic solvents (ethanol and organic aprotic solvents) and ionic liquids. The data on the influence of the nature of non-aqueous media and the basic parameters of the galvanic replacement process (solution composition, temperature and duration) on the deposits morphology and the geometry of the deposited particles are reported. It is shown that the galvanic replacement method in a non-aqueous medium promotes the controlled deposition of metallic nanoparticles on the macro-and nanosurfaces of the substrate and allows obtaining nanomaterials with predetermined functional properties.