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Text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) is the final stage in the speech-tospeech (S2S) translation pipeline, producing an audible rendition of translated text in the target language. TTS systems typically rely on a lexicon to look up pronunciations for each word in the input text. This is problematic when the target language is dialectal Arabic, because the statistical machine translation (SMT) system usually produces undiacritized text output. Many words in the latter possess multiple pronunciations;doi:10.1109/icassp.2012.6289032 dblp:conf/icassp/AnanthakrishnanTPNV12 fatcat:n443k2xijzfxtezn6gkkox7hse