Polish coastal dunes – affecting factors and morphology
It has been often argued that the formation of peat bogs in the mountains is predominantly influenced by a humid climate. Although in many mountains precipitation during the vegetation growth season is greater than evaporation, bogs, especially of the raised type, do not cover all gently sloping areas and often develop only within certain landforms. Local hydrological conditions determined by land relief and structure are the most crucial factor in the development of bogs in such areas. Peat
... such areas. Peat bogs of the Polish Carpathian Mountains demonstrate that bogs, irrespective of altitude, develop mainly in concave landforms or below convex morphological recesses, where outcrops of poorly permeable rocks offer numerous low-capacity but stable outflows of groundwater that continuously humidifies the slopes lying below thus supporting the formation of habitats for hydrophilic plants. This research project covered the parts of the Polish Carpathians having the largest number of bogs, thus allowing local-scale analysis of their location in relation to the lithological, geomorphological and hydrogeological properties of the substratum. It is assumed that an assessment of the influence of substratum on the location and formation of peat bogs is only correct when the coverage of the individual mires in the period preceding their anthropogenic degradation is known. Only then is it possible to establish what types of bedrock and which landforms are most favourable for bog formation.