Free-fall experiments of volcanic ash particles using a 2-D video disdrometer
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Abstract. Information of aerodynamic parameters of volcanic ash particles, such as terminal velocity, axis ratio, and canting angle, are necessary for quantitative ash-fall estimations with weather radar. In this study, free-fall experiments of volcanic ash particles were accomplished using a two-dimensional video disdrometer under controlled conditions. Samples containing a rotating symmetric axis were selected and divided into five types according to shape and orientation: oblate spheroid
... oblate spheroid with horizontal rotating axis (OH), oblate spheroid with vertical axis (OV), prolate spheroid with horizontal rotating axis (PH), prolate spheroid with vertical rotating axis (PV), and sphere (Sp). The horizontally (OH and PH) and vertically (OV and PV) oriented particles were present in proportions of 76 % and 22 %, and oblate and prolate spheroids were in proportions of 76 % and 24 %, respectively. The most common shape type was OH (57 %). The terminal velocities of OH, OV, PH, PV, and Sp were obtained analyzing 2-D video disdrometer data. The terminal velocities of PV were highest compared to those of other particle types. The lowest terminal velocities were found in OH particles. It is interesting that the terminal velocities for OH decreased rapidly in the range 0.5<D<1 mm, corresponding to the decrease in axis ratio (i.e., smaller the particle, the flatter the shape). The axis ratios of all particle types except Sp were found to be converged to 0.94 at D>2 mm. The histogram of canting angles followed unimodal and bimodal distributions with respect to horizontally and vertically oriented particles, respectively. The mean values and the standard deviation of entire particle shape types were close to 0 and 10∘, respectively, under calm atmospheric conditions.