Joint Distribution across Representation Space for Out-of-Distribution Detection [article]

JingWei Xu, Siyuan Zhu, Zenan Li, Chang Xu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have become a key part of many modern software applications. After training and validating, the DNN is deployed as an irrevocable component and applied in real-world scenarios. Although most DNNs are built meticulously with huge volumes of training data, data in the real world still remain unknown to the DNN model, which leads to the crucial requirement of runtime out-of-distribution (OOD) detection. However, many existing approaches 1) need OOD data for classifier
more » ... aining or parameter tuning, or 2) simply combine the scores of each hidden layer as an ensemble of features for OOD detection. In this paper, we present a novel outlook on in-distribution data in a generative manner, which takes their latent features generated from each hidden layer as a joint distribution across representation spaces. Since only the in-distribution latent features are comprehensively understood in representation space, the internal difference between in-distribution and OOD data can be naturally revealed without the intervention of any OOD data. Specifically, We construct a generative model, called Latent Sequential Gaussian Mixture (LSGM), to depict how the in-distribution latent features are generated in terms of the trace of DNN inference across representation spaces. We first construct the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based on in-distribution latent features for each hidden layer, and then connect GMMs via the transition probabilities of the inference traces. Experimental evaluations on popular benchmark OOD datasets and models validate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods in OOD detection.
arXiv:2103.12344v2 fatcat:hii5ttcw65e3nmjdurhazmaswq