The role of NF-kappa B and NF-IL6 transactivating factors in the synergistic activation of human serum amyloid A gene expression by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6
Journal of Biological Chemistry
To understand the mechanisms by which large increases in serum amyloid A (SAA) occur during the acute phase response, human hepatoma cells were transfected with SAA2 gene reporter plasmids and stimulated with combinations of cytokines. Although interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulated transcription from this promoter individually, addition of both mediators produced a response between two and nine times greater than the expected additive response. This synergistic activation was
... stic activation was dependent on the integrity of at least two cis-acting sequences in the SAA2 enhancer. The SAA2 NF-kappa B site was required functionally for the response to both IL-1 and IL-6 alone as well as for synergistic activation; however, IL-6 did not directly induce binding of nuclear proteins to the NF-kappa B sequence. A NF-IL6 site was required for full induction by IL-1 and IL-6, and also mediated strong transactivation by recombinant NF-IL6. Furthermore, transfected NF-IL6 synergized strongly with co-transfected NF-kappa B, particularly with RelA (p65). However synergy between IL-1 and IL-6 was only partly reduced by mutation of the NF-IL6 site, indicating further levels of interaction in addition to the NF-kappa B/NF-IL6 cooperativity.