Learning physics-based models from data: perspectives from inverse problems and model reduction

Omar Ghattas, Karen Willcox
2021 Acta Numerica  
This article addresses the inference of physics models from data, from the perspectives of inverse problems and model reduction. These fields develop formulations that integrate data into physics-based models while exploiting the fact that many mathematical models of natural and engineered systems exhibit an intrinsically low-dimensional solution manifold. In inverse problems, we seek to infer uncertain components of the inputs from observations of the outputs, while in model reduction we seek
more » ... ow-dimensional models that explicitly capture the salient features of the input–output map through approximation in a low-dimensional subspace. In both cases, the result is a predictive model that reflects data-driven learning yet deeply embeds the underlying physics, and thus can be used for design, control and decision-making, often with quantified uncertainties. We highlight recent developments in scalable and efficient algorithms for inverse problems and model reduction governed by large-scale models in the form of partial differential equations. Several illustrative applications to large-scale complex problems across different domains of science and engineering are provided.
doi:10.1017/s0962492921000064 fatcat:olerbfrqqvfi5m33txfwblzltu