Comparison of Relation between Resistance Pattern to Erythromycin and Tetracycline and the Prevalence of Superantigens Coding Enterotoxins A and B in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Broiler Poultry in Ilam, Iran
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive coccus that, in specific conditions, is able to generate various diseases. By secreting different enterotoxins, this bacterium prepares the settings to attack the host; among these, enterotoxins A and B play the most important roles in food poisoning. This study was performed to trace the genes coding enterotoxins A and B in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the clinic and poultry slaughterhouse. In addition, the present study analyzed the relation
... ed the relation between the prevalence of these genes and resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline. This study was performed from October 2015 to December 2016. A total of 200 samples of noses and cloaca from broiler poultry farms in Ilam, Iran, were collected, including 150 samples from the slaughterhouse and 50 samples from the clinic isolated for separating Staphylococcus aureus. After bacterial culture and confirmation of biochemical tests, the samples were evaluated for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the resistance pattern to antibiotics regarding the presence of femA, tets, ermb, sea, and seb genes using the disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction test. Out of 200 tested samples, 112 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (56%) were identified from which 91 and 21 strains were associated with the poultry slaughterhouse and clinic, respectively, and all the samples were identified using biochemical tests. After the detection of femA gene as an exclusive gene for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus strain, 100 strains (50%) were confirmed to be contaminated with this bacterium. Out of 100 strains, 46%, 14%, and 5% possessed the genes coding enterotoxin A, the genes coding enterotoxin B, and both genes, respectively. The results of antibiotic tests showed that 85% and 86% of the examined strains were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, respectively. In the present study, the analysis performed using QuickCalcs software showed that the strains resistant to these two antibiotics possessing the sea gene were more prevalent than those possessing seb genes in the samples isolated from the poultry slaughterhouse. This comparison revealed that during the short period of broiler poultry farms growth, resistant strains were able to proliferate sea gene among the herd, and its prevalence increased until reaching into the slaughterhouse. This study showed that the relation between the genes resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline and the sea gene was close and significant.