SPATIAL CONTROL OF CELL EXPANSION BY THE PLANT CYTOSKELETON

Laurie G. Smith, David G. Oppenheimer
2005 Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology  
The cytoskeleton plays important roles in plant cell shape determination by influencing the patterns in which cell wall materials are deposited. Cortical microtubules are thought to orient the direction eScholarship provides open access, scholarly publishing services to the University of California and delivers a dynamic research platform to scholars worldwide. of cell expansion primarily via their influence on the deposition of cellulose into the wall, though the precise nature of the
more » ... ure of the microtubule-cellulose relationship remains unclear. In both tip growing and diffusely growing cell types, F-actin promotes growth and also contributes to the spatial regulation of growth. F-actin has been proposed to play a variety of roles in the regulation of secretion in expanding cells, but its functions in cell growth control are not well understood. Recent work emphasized in this review on the morphogenesis of pollen tubes, epidermal trichomes (hairs) and epidermal pavement cells has yielded substantial new insights into mechanisms governing the dynamics and organization of cytoskeletal filaments in expanding plant cells, and the ways in which microtubules and F-actin interact to direct patterns of cell growth. Nevertheless, many important questions remain to be answered. Abstract The cytoskeleton plays important roles in plant cell shape determination by influencing the patterns in which cell wall materials are deposited. Cortical microtubules are thought to orient the direction of cell expansion primarily via their influence on the deposition of cellulose into the wall, although the precise nature of the microtubule-cellulose relationship remains unclear. In both tipgrowing and diffusely growing cell types, F-actin promotes growth and also contributes to the spatial regulation of growth. F-actin has been proposed to play a variety of roles in the regulation of secretion in expanding cells, but its functions in cell growth control are not well understood. Recent work highlighted in this review on the morphogenesis of selected cell types has yielded substantial new insights into mechanisms governing the dynamics and organization of cytoskeletal filaments in expanding plant cells and how microtubules and F-actin interact to direct patterns of cell growth. Nevertheless, many important questions remain to be answered. 271 Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 2005.21:271-295. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by University of California -San Diego on 10/18/05. For personal use only.
doi:10.1146/annurev.cellbio.21.122303.114901 pmid:16212496 fatcat:ryqonc3445a2rddj42mx6lfj3a