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This paper is concerned with the indexing and retrieval of images based on features extracted directly from the JPEG discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain. We examine possible ways of manipulating DCT coe$cients by standard image analysis approaches to describe image shape, texture, and color. Through the Mandala transformation, our approach groups a subset of DCT coe$cients to form ten blocks. Each block represents a particular frequency content of the original image. Two blocks are used todoi:10.1016/s0031-3203(00)00111-4 fatcat:5bouiyhvkrfgpob5qo5t5dhvdq