Drug Resistant Epilepsy and the hypothesis of intrinsic severity: What about the High‐Frequency Oscillations?

Cesar E. Santana‐Gomez, Jerome Engel, Richard Staba
2021 Epilepsia Open  
Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) affects approximately one-third of the patients with epilepsy. Based on experimental findings from animal models and brain tissue from patients with DRE, different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause(s) of drug resistance. One is the intrinsic severity hypothesis that posits that drug resistance is an inherent property of epilepsy related to disease severity. Seizure frequency is one measure of epilepsy severity, but frequency alone is an incomplete
more » ... easure of severity and doesn't fully explain basic research and clinical studies on drug resistance; thus, other measures of epilepsy severity are needed. One such measure could be pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), which are believed to reflect the neuronal disturbances responsible for the development of epilepsy and the generation of spontaneous seizures. In this manuscript, we will briefly review the intrinsic severity hypothesis, describe basic and clinical research on HFOs in the epileptic brain, and based on this evidence discuss whether HFOs could be a clinical measure of epilepsy severity. Understanding the mechanisms of DRE is critical for producing breakthroughs in the development and testing of novel strategies for treatment.
doi:10.1002/epi4.12565 pmid:34861102 pmcid:PMC9340307 fatcat:w5olfyvsyja5vh4muxlhthw6ri