A Systematic Review about an Advance in Cyclosporine Monitoring in Kidney Transplant Recipients
Context: An immunosuppressive drug, Cyclosporine (CsA), has been commonly used in kidney transplants. A safe dosing of CsA often causes nephrotoxity, bone marrow toxicity, and infection. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of CsA and CsA marker relation to the immune suppression have not been completely described in clinical practices yet. Objectives: This review summarizes our achievements on pharmacokinetic and CsA level Marker in kidney transplant patients. Search methods and Selection criteria:
... Selection criteria: A literature review was done using the National Center for Biotechnology Information's Pubmed Medline, Ovid Medline and Embase, and Iranian registries (Iranmedex, SID, MagIran, and IranDoc). Titles and abstracts were then reviewed to select studies based upon the predefined inclusion criteria. Our study defined a population of adult solid organ transplant recipients receiving the cyclosporine that Cyclosporine monitoring was done. Data Collection and Analysis: Two reviewers independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted the data from the included trials. Results: CsA pharmacokinetics is very different between kidney transplant recipients, in order to CsA profiling, no pharmacodynamic tools has been confirmed yet in clinical practices and the best way to individualize calcineurin inhibitor therapy is still a controversial issue. C0 levels do not exactly predict the CsA level or rejection risk, patient monitored by C2 levels have upper doses of CsA and have a lower frequency of early acute allograft rejection than patients profiled with C0 and although CA is highly heterogeneous closely post-transplant and seems to be unhelpful early after post-transplant it is more favorable after first months after. Conclusions: Establishing a biological CsA marker may be helpful in clinical decisions on the dose. It seemed to be logical that we should re-inspect the possibility of using them as a supplementary tool towards better therapeutic drug monitoring of cyclosporine or it needs to be reevaluated and needs to find a new target for a therapeutic plan in kidney transplant patients.