Planning and communicating prototype tests for the Nano Membrane Toilet: A critical review and proposed strategy

Jan Hennigs, Alison Parker, Matt Collins, Ying Jiang, Athanasios Kolios, Ewan McAdam, Leon Williams, Sean Tyrrel
2019 Gates Open Research  
Urban sanitation in growing cities of the Global South presents particular challenges. This led to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Reinvent The Toilet Challenge, which sparked the development of various non-sewered sanitation technologies like the Nano Membrane Toilet. Complex disruptive technologies like this entail an extensive product development process, including various types of prototype tests. While there is an abundance of literature discussing how to build prototypes, and the
more » ... imal number of tests, there has been little focus on how to plan and conduct tests, especially in a development endeavour of this complexity. Four approaches to testing are reviewed, and their strengths and weaknesses compared. A visualised testing strategy is proposed that encompasses the entire product development process and can be used to plan and communicate prototype tests for the Nano Membrane Toilet to ultimately achieve compliance with international standards.
doi:10.12688/gatesopenres.13057.1 pmid:32025631 pmcid:PMC6974809 fatcat:5bmeno4bdjfkjgmaqr5tmqbtqy