The Effect of Transplanted Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Matrix Metallo-proteinases in Brain of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

Ali Salimi, Afshin Amari, Marzieh Ghollasi, Faezeh Norouz
2017 Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports Original Article Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports   unpublished
Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that results in progressive demyelination through the infiltration of pathogenic T-cells into the central nervous system (CNS) [1, 2]. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-containing extracellular enzymes, which can cleave extracellular matrix components and the ectodo-mains of several membrane proteins [3, 4]. There is evidence that MMPs play a key role in the pathogenesis of many neuroinflammatory diseases such as
more » ... ry diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The production of MMPs by leukocytes helps destroy the basement membrane within the central nervous system and surrounding cerebral vessels. MMPs cause demyelination and axonal injury, promoting neuroinflam-mation and playing a central role in the migration of in-flammatory cells into CNS [5-8]. Several members of the 25-member MMP family are increased in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Elevated levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-12 have been reported in the brain and spinal cord of EAE-induced rodents (mice), as well as in cerebrospinal fluid of human MS patients [9-14]. EAE is attenuated in mice deficient for MMP-8 and MMP-9, as well as in MMP-2 and MMP-9 double-null mice [8, 15]. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells capable of self-renewal and multiple differentiations, which display neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and