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In this work, a real-time energy management problem for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed. The considered powertrain is built from a commercial HEV model. First, a non-linear optimal control problem under model predictive control scheme is formulated. The designed controller aims to generate the optimal power split and gear ratio schedule with respect to minimise the energy consumption of fuel and electricity. Moreover, the multiple shooting algorithm is introduced todoi:10.1049/iet-est.2020.0052 fatcat:3q4gxlwvo5brfosths5pgwi3hu