Intensity and Wavelength Division Multiplexing FBG Sensor System Using a Raman Amplifier and Extreme Learning Machine

Yibeltal Chanie Manie, Run-Kai Shiu, Peng-Chun Peng, Bao-Yi Guo, Mekuanint Agegnehu Bitew, Wei-Chieh Tang, Hung-Kai Lu
2018 Journal of Sensors  
A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is a favorable sensor in measuring strain, pressure, vibration, and temperature in different applications, such as in smart structures, wind turbines, aerospace, industry, military, medical centers, and civil engineering. FBG sensors have the following advantages: immune to electromagnetic interference, light weight, small size, flexible, stretchable, highly accurate, longer stability, and capable in measuring ultra-high-speed events. In this paper, we propose
more » ... and demonstrate an intensity and wavelength division multiplexing (IWDM) FBG sensor system using a Raman amplifier and extreme learning machine (ELM). We use an IWDM technique to increase the number of FBG sensors. As the number of FBG sensors increases and the spectra of two or more FBGs are overlapped, a conventional peak detection (CPD) method is unappropriate to detect the central Bragg wavelength of each FBG sensor. To solve this problem, we use ELM techniques. An ELM is used to accurately detect the central Bragg wavelength of each FBG sensor even when the spectra of FBGs are partially or fully overlapped. Moreover, a Raman amplifier is added to a fiber span to generate a gain medium within the transmission fiber, which amplifies the signal and compensates for the signal losses. The transmission distance and the sensing signal quality increase when the Raman pump power increases. The experimental results revealed that a Raman amplifier compensates for the signal losses and provides a stable sensing output even beyond a 45 km transmission distance. We achieve a remote sensing of strain measurement using a 45 km single-mode fiber (SMF). Furthermore, the well-trained ELM wavelength detection methods accurately detect the central Bragg wavelengths of FBG sensors when the two FBG spectra are fully overlapped.
doi:10.1155/2018/7323149 fatcat:wxkoanzaqfb5rb4ud572dditby