Implications of Successes and Failures of BEV-Focused Incentive Support for PEVs in the U.S., Canada and Europe
World Electric Vehicle Journal
Short Abstract An international comparative analysis of causes of variation of PEV sales rates per capita in selected U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and European Nations is conducted. 2014-15 light-duty PEV registrations/sales by make and model are examined, drawing heavily on 2014 data for aggregate comparisons. States, provinces, and nations with PEV success, but with widely varying PEV purchase incentives and charging infrastructure installations are examined. The paper focuses
... focuses particularly presence or absence of long daily distance charging options for PEVs. Four questions are addressed. (1) European evidence is that PHEV powertrains are a very marketable option for large family vehicles. For small BEVs BMW i3 sales patterns indicate that range extension beyond 120 km but less than 240 km via gasoline significantly increases market share. BEV inter-city functionality provided by aggressive installation of DC fast charging was critical to overall PEV success in Norway. Norway, like Northern Europe and Canada has a utility network that is winter peaking, which allows provision of peak summer BEV long-distance charging needs without difficulty. This is not the case for the U.S., which is summer peaking. The reviewed states, provinces, and nations vary considerably in seasonal peak temperature extremes. These climate differences have a significant bearing on the local viability of PHEVs vs. BEVs. The long distance DC fast charging infrastructure investments needed to support BEV market success are not as large when PHEVs are preferred by consumers.