Framing digital image credibility: image manipulation problems, perceptions and solutions [article]

Sabrina Caldwell, University, The Australian National, University, The Australian National
Image manipulation is subverting the credibility of photographs as a whole. Currently there is no practical solution for asserting the authenticity of a photograph. People express their concern about this when asked but continue to operate in a 'business as usual' fashion. While a range of digital forensic technologies has been developed to address falsification of digital photographs, such technologies begin with 'sourceless' images and conclude with results in equivocal terms of probability,
more » ... hile not addressing the meaning and content contained within the image. It is interesting that there is extensive research into computer-based image forgery detection, but very little research into how we as humans perceive, or fail to perceive, these forgeries when we view them. The survey, eye-gaze tracking experiments and neural network analysis undertaken in this research contribute to this limited pool of knowledge. The research described in this thesis investigates human perceptions of images that are manipulated and, by comparison, images that are not manipulated. The data collected, and their analyses, demonstrate that humans are poor at identifying that an image has been manipulated. I consider some of the implications of digital image manipulation, explore current approaches to image credibility, and present a potential digital image authentication framework that uses technology and tools that exploit social factors such as reputation and trust to create a framework for technologically packaging/wrapping images with social assertions of authenticity, and surfaced metadata information. The thesis is organised into 6 chapters. Chapter 1: Introduction I briefly introduce the history of photography, highlighting its importance as reportage, and discuss how it has changed from its introduction in the early 19th century to today. I discuss photo manipulation and consider how it has changed along with photography. I describe the relevant literature on the subject of image authentication and the use of eye gaze tracking [...]
doi:10.25911/5d70f0183ca9d fatcat:2jhxnhkgrfednh3hnxfng5stau