Neurohormonal modulation: The new paradigm of pharmacological treatment of heart failure
Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia
The current paradigm of medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is triple neurohormonal blockade with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), a beta-blocker (BB) and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). However, three-year mortality remains over 30%. Stimulation of counter-regulatory systems in addition to neurohormonal blockade constitutes a new paradigm, termed neurohormonal modulation. Sacubitril/valsartan is the first element of this new
... strategy. PARADIGM-HF was the largest randomized clinical trial conducted in HFrEF. It included 8442 patients and compared the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization due to HF, which occurred in 914 (21.8%) patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan and in 1117 (26.5%) patients receiving enalapril (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.73-0.87, p=0.0000002; NNT 21). Sacubitril/valsartan reduced both primary endpoint components, as well as sudden cardiac death, death due to worsening HF, and death from all causes. Patients on sacubitril/valsartan reported less frequent deterioration of HF and of quality of life, and discontinued study medication less frequently because of an adverse event. PARADIGM-HF demonstrated the superiority of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril, with a 20% greater impact on cardiovascular mortality compared to ACEIs. Accordingly, in 2016, the European (ESC) and American (ACC/AHA/HFSA) cardiology societies simultaneously issued a class I recommendation for the replacement of ACEIs by sacubitril/valsartan in patients resembling PARADIGM-HF trial participants.