Organ-selective growth in the offspring of protein-restricted mothers
British Journal of Nutrition
Recent epidemiological studies in people whose birth weights were recorded many years ago suggest links between impaired growth during early life and the development of diseases, including diabetes, much later in life. The long-term effects of retarded early growth are proposed to result from malnutrition at critical periods of fetal or infant development leading to reduction in the growth of organs and permanent changes in their metabolism or structure, or both. In order to investigate this, a
... rat model was established which involved feeding either a diet containing 200 g protein/kg or an isoenergetic diet containing 80 g protein/kg to pregnant and lactating rats. In addition, cross-fostering techniques were employed which allowed a separate evaluation of the prenatal or the postnatal periods. The offspring were studied at 21 d of age or were weaned onto a normal laboratory chow and studied at 11 months of age. The 80g protein/kg diet during pregnancy did not affect the overall reproductive performance although more subtle differences were evident. Permanent growth retardation was evident in offspring subjected to maternal protein restriction during the postnatal period. At 21 d of age the offspring of protein-restricted mothers exhibited selective changes in organ growth: compared with the body weight, the lung and brain experienced a smaller decrease in weight; the heart, kidney and thymus decreased proportionately; whereas, the pancreas, spleen, muscle and liver showed a greater reduction in weight. In older animals the muscle weight was lower in the male rats and the relative weight of pancreas was increased in the female rats.