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Theoretical Model of Residual Stress and Warpage for Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing Stiffened Panels
Wire and arc additive manufacturing of stiffened ribs for fabricating large integral panel components holds promise for lightweight construction, but stress and warpage remain intractable problems. This work take stress in central lines as a research focus, theoretically analyzes stress evolution along central lines without a stress distribution hypothesis, then further develops prediction models of warpage, based on general beam theory. The stress and warpage models are then verified bydoi:10.3390/met10050666 fatcat:z2ix7lkxtrhctf4wl5crm2bmgq