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This paper describes a technique to reliably and securely identify individual integrated circuits (ICs) based on the precise measurement of circuit delays and a simple challengeresponse protocol. This technique could be used to produce key-cards that are more difficult to clone than ones involving digital keys on the IC. We consider potential venues of attack against our system, and present candidate implementations. Experiments on Field Programmable Gate Arrays show that the technique isdoi:10.1002/cpe.805 fatcat:zogqsvujufexrntagh6ax7smmy