Diseases of the Eyes

1913 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)  
This is essentially a book for the student and general practitioner, and is therefore intentionally incomplete. Still one regrets the seeming hurry that has occasioned careless English and the omission of some important matters. The use of cycloplegics and the need of complete correction of astigmatism are not given due weight. No mention is made of the Cred\l=e' \ method of prophylaxis in ophthalmia neonatorum. Tuberculosis as an etiologic factor in eye diseases is scarcely emphasized enough.
more » ... n contrast to these omissions, one is pleased to note the excellent character of the work as a whole, and especially the treatment of the subject of trauma and of uveitis resulting from septic mouth conditions. The theory of color-vision and color-blindness, with tests, is given more space than usual in such works. This monograph is one of the best expositions of this rather complicated subject. The author discusses the various forms of strabismus, the relation of refraction to them and the numerous procedures for operative relief. The last chapter is of great value, and discusses the question whether an operation should be done on one eye only or on both eyes. The proposed tariff bill l'or IC13, in so far as it alle-cls drugs, surgical instruments, etc., shows at least a slight reduction in the rales, as compared with the Paync-Aldricli Law of 1900. The new measure-has made no very sweeping reduction on drugs, instruments, hospital utensils and the like as a whole. Certain articles have been subjected to no change whatever; for example, under Schedule A of the new bill a rate of 25 per cent, ad valorem is provided on salol. chloral hydrate, phenolphthalein, urea, terpiti hydrate, anlipyi in. glycerophosphati-of lime, aci-i ,v tsalie-v lie aeiel. guaiacol car¬ bonate and thymol. These drugs were not specifically men¬ tioned in the HKItl tariff measure, but it WOUld seem that nearly all of them could he-placed under either Section I or Section 21 of Schedule-A in the-present law. Loth of these sections provide a rale of 25 per cent, ad valorem "for any oilier drugs not specially provided loi." On certain other drugs there is an appreciable reduction; for example, calomel and other mercurial preparations are reduced from XI per cent, ad valorem lo 15 pe-r cent, ad valorem: chloroform from HI Cents a pound lo 2 cents a pound: elrires. such as barks and bei ries, which have been advanced in value by shredding, from 0.25 cent a pound and 10 per cent, ad valorem to 1(1 per cent, ad valorem: ethers from S cents a pound to $1 a pound, or .'ill per cent, ad valorem, ill accordance with the variety, to not more than ,ri cents a pound or 20 pe-r cent, ad valorem e.pparcntly the saine classification; iodoform from 75 cents a pound to In cents a pound, and strychnin from lo cents an ounce to the free list. , Again, on other drugs, il would see-in that the duty has been raised; for example, certain medicinal preparations con¬ taining alcohol were taxed uniformly 55 cents a pound. The new measure changes this to a graduated Bcale according to the percentage of alcohol, varying from III cents a pound and 2(1 per cent, ad valorem up to -HI cents a pound and 20 per cent, ad valorem, while on other elru^s the duty is frankly raised, as on ergot from the free' list to 10 cents a pound. ruder Schedule L. microscopes, optical instruments ami frames and Ihe like are reduced from 45 pe-r cent, ad valorem lo oil per cent ail valorem; spectacles and eye-glasses, which were graded from 20 e-ents a dozen and 15 per cent, ad valorem lo 511 per cent, ad valorem, are now to be uniformly taxed 35 per cent, ail valorem. tinier Schedule C, scissors, shears and blades, whether fin¬ ished or unfinished, have-been shifted from a sliding scale, varying from 15 cents a dozen and 15 per cent, ad valorem up to 75 cents a dozen and 25 per cent, ad valorem, to n straight ad valorem lax of .",0 per cent. Hospital utensils have been reduced from lo per cent, ad valorem (o 25 per cent, ml valorem; surgical instruments in general, whether finished or unfinished, so long as they were sufficiently advanced to he definitely c-lasseel at, all. have been admitted at the Uniform rale of (5 per cent, ad valorem. They are now to la-admitted al 25 per cent, ad valorem, Other articles will be classed with the articles they most nearly resemble which are specially mentioned; therefore they may or may not be reduced, depending on whether the articles with which they are classed are reduced or not. Finally, besides strychnin, all the antitoxins and scrums, as well as vaccine virus, havebeen put on the free li-t. THE MOVEMENT FOR A NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH -The campaign lor Ihe adoption of what is popularly known as flu-Owen bill is only one, chapter in tin-history of a cam¬ paign, e-overing over folly years, for a national health organ¬ isation. The lirst ment ion of such an organization in the pro¬ ceedings of the-American Medical Association appears in 1S71; during the annual session Dr. George Houston, secretary of the California si ale Medical Society, presented a preamble and resolutions calling attention to the growing importance of hygiene ami preventive medicine, and lo the recent establish¬ ment of slate hoards of health in .Massachusetts and Cal¬ ifornia, at that time the only states to have-such organiza¬ tions, 'Ihe resolution furl her recommends (hat the-Associa¬ tion lake steps, as soon as six stales should establish state departments of health, to bring about the formation of a national health council, for the study of vital statistics and the diffusion of sanitary knowledge, These resolut ions being adopted, a committee was appointed, consisting of one member from each state, (o secure the organization of state boards of health. The following year (1872), al the meeting held in Philadel¬ phia. Dr. 'I'. M, Logan of California, chairman of the Com¬ mittee on a National Health Council, appointed at the previous meeting, presented a report and asked thai Ihe committee lie continued as a special section on slate medicine, By this time Minnesota ami Virginia hail also established boards of health. The committee devoted most of its efforts to stimulating the creation of -laic health organizations. After (he report of the Committee had been adopted, Dr. -L ('. Tucker of California introduced a resolution asking Congres-, to establish a national sanitary bureau, and presented an act drafted for this pur¬ pose, which unfortunately does not appear in the records. This resolution was laid em Ihe table. In 1 S7;i. al St, Louis, there is mi mention of the subject except that the commit tee reported progresa. Dr. Thomas M. Logan of California presided al, the St. Louis meeting, and in his presidential address referred to the development of pre ventive medicine ami stated that a bill had recently been introduced into Congress for (be establishment of a national bureau of sanitary science to be-located in Washington, lie said. "What seems to be required is to effect a union of views as to a method of action so as lo bring every stale into imu:.' diäte communication by means of stale boards of health with a central office in Washington to he presided eiver by a com-Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a Indiana University School of Medicine User on 05/13/2015
doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04340180044026 fatcat:awcooe4ebnhfjkwwt25dklbvyi