On Deterioration Mechanism of Concrete Exposed to Freeze-Thaw Cycles
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
At present, concrete and reinforced concrete are gaining ground in all sectors of construction including construction in the extreme north, on shelves, etc. Under harsh service conditions, the durability of reinforced concrete structures is related to concrete frost resistance. Frost resistance tests are accompanied by the accumulation of residual dilation deformations affected by temperature-humidity stresses, ice formation and other factors. Porosity is an integral part of the concrete
... re which is formed as a result of cement hydration. The prevailing hypothesis of a deterioration mechanism of concrete exposed to cyclic freezing, i.e. the hypothesis of hydraulic pressure of unfrozen water in microcapillaries, does not take into account a number of phenomena that affect concrete resistance to frost aggression. The main structural element of concrete, i.e. hardened cement paste, contains various hydration products, such as crystalline, semicrystalline and gel-like products, pores and non-hydrated residues of clinker nodules. These structural elements in service can gain thermodynamic stability which leads to the concrete structure coarsening, decrease in the relaxation capacity of concrete when exposed to cycling. Additional destructive factors are leaching of portlandite, the difference in thermal dilation coefficients of hydration products, non-hydrated relicts, aggregates and ice. The main way to increase concrete frost resistance is to reduce the macrocapillary porosity of hardened cement paste and to form stable gel-like hydration products.