The complete mitochondrial genome of the subterranean crustaceanMetacrangonyx longipes(Amphipoda): A unique gene order and extremely short control region
Metazoan mitochondrial genomes usually consist of the same gene set, but some taxonomic groups show a considerable variety in gene order and nucleotide composition. The mitochondrial genomes of 37 crustaceans are currently known. Within the malacostracan superorder Peracarida, only three partial mitogenome sequences and the complete sequence of Ligia oceanica (Isopoda) are available. Frequent translocation events have changed the mitochondrial gene order in crustaceans, providing an opportunity
... ding an opportunity to study the patterns and mechanisms of mitogenome rearrangement and to determine their impact on phylogenetic reconstructions. Here we report the first complete nucleotide sequence of an amphipod species, Metacrangonyx longipes, belonging to a phylogenetically enigmatic family occurring in continental subterranean waters. The genome has 14,113 bp and contains the usual 13 protein coding genes and two rRNA subunits, but only 21 out of the typical 22 tRNA genes of Metazoa. This is the shortest mitogenome described thus far for a crustacean and also one of the richest in AT (76.03%). The genome compactness results from a very small control region of 76 bp, the occurrence of frequent gene overlap, and the absence of large non-coding fragments. Six of the protein-coding genes have unusual start codons. Comparison of individual protein coding genes with the sequences known for other crustaceans suggests that nad2, nad6, nad4L and atp8 show the highest divergence rates. M. longipes shows a unique crustacean mitogenome gene order, differing even from the condition found in Parhyale hawaiiensis (Amphipoda), whose coding sequence has also been completed in the present study.