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Existing methods to handle pointer variables during data-flow analyses can make such analyses inefficient both in time and space because the data-flow analyses must store and propagate large sets of data facts that are introduced by dereferences of pointer variable. This paper presents equivalence analysis, a general technique to improve the efficiency of data-flow analyses in the presence of pointers. The technique identifies equivalence relations among the memory locations accessed by adoi:10.1145/381788.316175 fatcat:oedfwnjohfcsbjk72neju3e7m4